Sagada, like the other municipalities situated in CAR, has a mountainous terrain. It has a gentle to very steep slopes with many portions of gradually sloping valleys in the west-central and northeastern areas. Elevation ranges from 910 meters above sea level on Mount Kaman-engel.
Sagada, Mountain Province has 5 soil type classification that are prominent in the area, namely: (1) Undifferentiated Mountain Soil, (2) Sagada Clay Loam, (3) Sabangan Clay Loam, (4) Natonin Loam, and (5) Rough Mountain Loam (Municipal Agriculture Office (MAO), 2005).
C. Slope Stability
Ground subsidence and unstable ground hazards were identified in some portions of Barangays Ankileng and Poblacion particularly in settlement areas. The municipality is also prone to other geologic hazards because of the presence of a fault line on its southeastern side, which traverses from Apayao to Otucan, Bauko.
Sagada has a Type I climate based on the Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) Coronas Climate Classification System. Type I climates have two pronounced seasons: wet and dry. The dry season is from November to April while the wet season is from May to October.
Sagada generally experiences a cool climate because of its relative high elevation. The cold weather is experienced from December until February, which are the coldest months. The Northern Area of the municipality has a relatively colder climate because it has the highest elevation in the area.
Sagada is distinct for its limestone formations and underground rivers. The dominant types of minerals found in Sagada are sand, gravel and boulder aggregate, gold, calcium and limestone. (MAO, 2005)